Linguistic Category Model
Authors propose a four-level classification of adjectives and verbs by decreasing abstractness, with adjectives being the most abstract. Then come the following categories of verbs:
- State Verbs (SVs): Refer to mental or emotional states; no clear definition of beginning and end; do not readily take the progressive form; not freely used in imperatives (e.g. like, hate, notice, envy).
- Interpretative Action Verbs (IAVs): Refer to general class of behaviors; have a defined action with a beginning and end; have positive or negative semantic connotations (e.g. help, cheat, inhibit, imitate).
- Descriptive Action Verbs (DAVs): Refer to one particular activity and call to at least one physically invariant feature of the action; action has clear beginning and end; usually do not have positive or negative connotations (e.g. call, kiss, talk, stare).
Semin, G. R., & Fiedler, K. (1988). The cognitive functions of linguistic categories in describing persons: Social cognition and language. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(4), 558-568.
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